Peer-Reviewed Articles

Cohen, P.M., & Santos, L.R. (2016). Capuchins (Cebus apella) fail to show an asymmetric dominance effect. Animal Cognition. [download]

Johnston, A. M., Holden, P. C., & Santos, L. R. (in press). Exploring the evolutionary origins of overimitation: A comparison across domesticated and non-domesticated canids. Developmental Science. [download]

Rosati, A.G. & Santos, L.R. (2016). Spontaneous metacognition in Rhesus monkeys. Psychological Science. [download]
Rosati, A. G., Arre, A. M., Platt, M. L., & Santos, L. R. (2016). Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.[download]
Martin, A. & Santos, L.R. (2016). What cognitive mechanisms support primate theory of mind? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. [download]
Leimgruber, K.L., Rosati, A.G., & Santos, L.R. (2016). Capuchin monkeys punish those who have more. Evolution & Human Behavior. [download]
Drayton, L. & Santos, L. R. (2014). A decade of theory of mind research on Cayo Santiago: Insights into rhesus macaque social cognition. American Journal of Primatology: Special Issue. [download]
Rosati, A. G. & Santos, L. R. (2015). The evolutionary roots of human decision-making. Annual Review of Psychology. [download]
Catapano, R., Buttrick, N., Widness, J., Goldstein, R. & Santos, L. R. (2014). Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects. Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience. [download]
Rosati, A. G., Wobber, V., Hughes, K., & Santos, L. R. (2014). Comparative developmental psychology: How is human cognitive development unique? Evolutionary Psychology. [download]

MacLean, E. L., Hare, B., Nunn, C. L., Addessi, E., Amici, F., Anderson, R. C., Aureli, F., Baker, J. M., Bania, A. E., Barnard, A. M., Boogert, N. J., Brannon, E. M., Bray, E. E., Bray J., Brent, L. J. N., Burkart, J. M., Call J., Cantlon, J. F., Cheke, L. G., Clayton, N. S., Delgado, M. M., DiVincenti, L. J., Fujita, K., Herrmann, E., Hiramatsu, C., Jacobs, L. F., Jordan, K. E., Laude, J. R., Leimgruber, K. L., Messer, E. J. E. , Moura, A. C. de A., Ostojić, L., Picard, A., Platt, M. L., Plotnik, J. M., Range, F., Reader, S. M., Reddy, R. B., Sandel, A. A., Santos, L. R., Schumann, K., Seed, A. M., Sewall, K. B., Shaw, R. C., Slocombe, K. E., Su, Y., Takimoto, A., Tan, J., Tao, R., van Schaik, C. P., VirányiZ., Visalberghi, E., Wade, J. C., Watanabe, A., Widness, J., Young, J. K., Zentall, T. R., & Zhao, Y. (2014). The Evolution of Self-Control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323533111 [download]

Martin, A., Santos, L. R. (2014). The origins of belief representation: Monkeys fail to automatically represent others’ beliefs. Cognition, 130 (3): 300-308. [download]
Edwards, B. J., Rottman, B. M., Shankar, M., Betzler, R., Chituc, V., Rodriguez, R., Silva, L., Wibecan, L., Widness, J., Santos, L. R. (2014). Do Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Diagnose Causal Relations in the Absence of a Direct Reward? PLoS ONE 9(2): e88595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088595 [download]

Leimgruber, K. L., Ward, A. F., Widness, J., Norton, M. I., Olson, K. R., Gray, K., Santos, L. R. (2014). Give What You Get: Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) and 4-Year-Old Children Pay Forward Positive and Negative Outcomes to Conspecifics. PLoS ONE 9(1): e87035. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087035 [download]

Drayton, L A., Santos, L R. (2014). “Insights into Intraspecies Variation in Primate Prosocial Behavior: Capuchins (Cebus apella) Fail to Show Prosociality on a Touchscreen Task. Behavioral Sciences. 4, no. 2: 87-101. [download]

Leimgruber, K. L., Shaw, A., Santos, L. R., & Olson, K. R. (2013). Young Children Are More Generous When Others Are Aware of Their Actions. PloS ONE, 7(10): e48292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. [download]

Hughes, K. D., Mullo, E. & Santos, L. R. (2013). Solving small spaces: Investigating use of landmark cues in brown capuchins (Cebus apella). Animal Cognition, 16, 803-817. [download]

Drayton, L. A., Santos, L. R. (2013). Capuchins’ (Cebus apella) sensitivity to others’ goal-directed actions in a helping context. Animal Cognition. In press. [download]
Sheskin, M., Ashayeri, K., Skerry, A. & Santos, L. R. (2013). Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) fail to show inequality aversion in a no-cost situation. Evolution and Human Behavior. In press. [download]

Dubuc, C., Hughes, K. D., Cascio, J. & Santos, L. R. (2012). Social tolerance in a despotic primate: Co-feeding between consortship partners in rhesus macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 148(1), 73-80. [download]

Hughes, K. D. & Santos, L. R. (2012). Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126. 421-432. [download]

Marticorena, D., Ruiz, A. M., Mukerji, C., Goddu, A., & Santos, L. R. (2011). Monkeys represent others’ knowledge but not their beliefs. Developmental Science, 14(6), 1406-1416. [download]

Higham, J. P.. Hughes, K. D., Brent, L. J. N., Dubuc, C., Engelhardt, A.Heistermann, M., Maestriperi, D., Santos, L. R., & Stevens, M. (2011). Familiarity affects the assessment of female facial signals of fertility by free-ranging male rhesus macaques. Proceedings from the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1723), 3452-3458. [download]

Skerry, A. E., Sheskin, M., & Santos, L. R. (2011). Capuchin monkeys are not prosocial in an instrumental helping task. Animal Cognition, 14, 647-654. [download]

Kanngiesser, P., Santos, L. R., Hood, B. M., & Call, J. (2011). The limits of endowment effects in great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 125(4). 436-445. [download]

Lakshminarayanan, V., Chen, M. K., & Santos, L. R. (2011). The evolution of decision-making under risk: Framing effects in monkey risk preferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 47(3), 689-693. [download]
Egan, L., Bloom, P., & Santos, L. R. (2010). Choice-induced preferences in the absence of choice: Evidence from a blind two-choice paradigm with young children and capuchin monkeys. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 204-207. [download]  
Phillips, W., Shankar, M., & Santos, L. R. (2010). Essentialism in the absence of language? Evidence from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Developmental Science, 13(4), F1-F7. [download]
Lakshminarayanan, V. & Santos, L. R. (2009). Cognitive preconditions for responses to fairness: An object retrieval task in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Economics. 2(1), 12-20. [download]
Phillips, W., Barnes, J. L., Mahajan, N., Yamaguchi, M. & Santos, L. R. (2009). ‘Unwilling’ versus ‘unable’: Capuchin monkeys’ (Cebus apella) understanding of human intentional action. Developmental Science, 12(6). 938-945. [download]
Shutts, K., Condry, K. F., Santos, L. R., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Core knowledge and its limits: The domain of food. Cognition, 112, 120-140. [download]
Barnes, J. L., Martinez, M., Langer, M., Hill, T., & Santos, L. R. (2008). Helping behaviour and regard for others in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): An evolutionary perspective on altruism. Biology Letters, 4(6), 638-40. [download]
Lakshminarayanan, V. & Santos, L. R. (2008). Capuchin monkeys are sensitive to others’ welfare. Current Biology, 18, R999-R1000. [download]
Lakshminaryanan, V., Chen, M. K., & Santos, L. R. (2008). Endowment effect in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363, 3837-3844. [download]
Egan, L., Santos, L. R., & Bloom, P. (2007). The origins of cognitive dissonance: Evidence from children and monkeys. Psychological Science, 18, 978-983. [download]
Phillips, W. & Santos, L. R. (2007). Evidence for kind representations in the absence of language: Experiments with rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Cognition, 102, 455-463. [download]
van Marle, K., Aw, J., McCrink, K., & Santos, L. R. (2006). How monkeys (Cebus apella) enumerate objects and substances. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120(4), 416-426. [download]
Chen, M. K., Lakshminaryanan, V. & Santos, L. R. (2006). The evolution of our preferences: Evidence from capuchin monkey trading behavior. Journal of Political Economy, 114(3), 517-537. [download]
Cheries, E. W., Newman, G. E., Santos, L. R., & Scholl, B. J. (2006). Units of visual individuation in rhesus macaques: Objects or unbound features? Perception, 35(8), 1057–1071. [download]
Santos, L. R., Nissen, A. G. & Ferrugia, J. (2006). Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) know what others can and cannot hear. Animal Behaviour, 71(5). 1175-1181. [download]
Santos, L. R., Pearson, H. M., Spaepen, G. M., Tsao, F., and Hauser, M. D. (2006). Probing the limits of tool competence: Experiments with two non-tool-using species (Cercopithecus aethiops and Saguinus oedipus). Animal Cognition, 9(2), 94-109. [download]
Santos, L. R., Seelig, D., & Hauser, M. D. (2006). Cotton-top tamarins’ (Saguinus oedipus) expectations about occluded objects: A dissociation between looking and reaching tasks. Infancy, 9(2), 147-171. [download]
Flombaum, J. I., and Santos, L. R. (2005). Rhesus monkeys attribute perceptions to others. Current Biology, 15, 447–452. [download]
Santos, L. R., Barnes, J., & Mahajan, N. (2005). Expectations about numerical events in four lemur species (Eulemur fulvus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Varecia rubra). Animal Cognition, 8, 253-262. [download]
Santos, L. R., Mahajan, N., & Barnes, J. (2005). How prosimian primates represent tools: Experiments with two lemur species (Eulemur fulvus and Lemur catta). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119, 394-403. [download]
Santos, L. R., Rosati, A., Sproul, C., Spaulding, B., & Hauser, M. D. (2005). Means-means-end tool choice in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus): Finding the limits on primates’ knowledge of tools. Animal Cognition, 8, 236-246. [download]
Flombaum, J. I., Kundey, S. M., Santos, L. R., and Scholl, B. J. (2004). Dynamic object individuation in rhesus macaques: A study of the tunnel effect. Psychological Science, 15, 795-800. [download]
Ghazanfar, A. A. & Santos, L. R. (2004). Primate brains in the wild: The sensory bases for social interactions. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 603-616. [download]
Santos, L. R. (2004). ‘Core knowledges’: A dissociation between spatiotemporal knowledge and contact-mechanics in a non-human primate? Developmental Science, 7, 167-174. [download]
Santos, L. R., Miller, C. T., & Hauser, M.D. (2003). Representing tools: how two non-human primate species distinguish between the functionally relevant and irrelevant features of a tool. Animal Cognition, 6, 269-281. [download]
Hauser, M. D., Santos, L. R., Spaepen, G. M., & Pearson, H. E. (2002). Problem solving, inhibition, and domain-specific experience: Experiments on cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Animal Behaviour, 64, 387-396. [download]
Santos, L. R. & Hauser, M. D. (2002). A non-human primate’s understanding of solidity: Dissociations between seeing and acting. Developmental Science, 5, F1-F7. [download]
Santos, L. R., Hauser, M. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). The representation of different domains of knowledge in human and non-human primates: Artifactual and food kinds. In M. Bekoff, C. Allen, & G. Burghardt (Eds.) The Cognitive Animal. Cambridge: MIT Press, 205-215. [download]
Santos, L. R., Sulkowski, G. M., Spaepen, G. M., & Hauser, M. D. (2002). Object individuation using property/kind information in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Cognition, 83. 241-264. [download]
Santos, L. R., Hauser, M. D., & Spelke, E. S. (2001). Recognition and categorization of biologically significant objects by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): The domain of food. Cognition, 82, 127-155. [download]
Deipolyi, A., Santos, L. R., & Hauser, M. D. (2001). The role of landmarks in cotton-top tamarin spatial foraging: Evidence for geometric and non-geometric features. Animal Cognition, 4, 99-108. [download]
Munakata, Y., Santos, L. R., Spelke, E. S., Hauser, M. D & O’Reilly, R. C. (2001). Visual representation in the wild: How rhesus monkeys parse objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 44-58. [download]
Hood, B. M., Santos, L., & Fieselman, S. (2000). Two-year-olds’ naive predictions for horizontal trajectories. Developmental Science, 3, 328-332. [download]
Hood, B. M., Hauser, M. D., Anderson, L., & Santos, L. R. (1999). Gravity biases in a non-human primate. Developmental Science, 2, 35-41. [download]
Santos, L. R., Ericson, B., & Hauser, M. D. (1999). Constraints on problem solving and inhibition: object retrieval in cotton-top tamarins. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113, 186-193. [download]
Santos, L. R. & Hauser, M. D. (1999). How monkeys see the eyes: Cotton-top tamarins’ reaction to changes in visual attention and action. Animal Cognition, 2, 131-139. [download]
Book Chapters, Commentaries, and Literature Reviews
Rosati, A. G. & Santos, L. R. (2015). The evolutionary roots of human decision-making. Annual  Review of Psychology. In press. [download]
Drayton, L. & Santos, L. R. (in press). Is human prosocial behavior unique?: Insights and new questions from non-human primates. In J. Greene (Ed.) Positive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. [download]

Furlong, E. E. & Santos, L. R. (2014). Evolutionary insights into the nature of choice: Evidence from non-human primates. To appear in W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.) Moral Psychology, Volume 4: Freedom and Responsibility. Cambridge: MIT Press. [download]

Santos, L. R. & Egan Brad, L. C. (2013). What primates can tell us about the surprising nature of human choice. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.) Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 343-347. [download]

Santos, L. R. & Platt, M. L. (2013). Evolutionary anthropological insights into neuroeconomics: What non-human primates can tell us about human decision-making strategies. To appear in P. W. Glimcher & E. Fehr (Eds.) Neuroeconomics: Second Edition. New York: Academic Press. 109-122. [download]

Ruiz, A. M. & Santos, L. R. (2013). Understanding differences in the way human and non-human primates represent tools: The role of teleo-intentional information. To appear in C. Sanz, J. Call & C. Boesch (Eds.) Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology. 119-133. [download]

Sheskin, M. & Santos, L. R. (2012). The evolution of morality: Which aspects of human moral concerns are shared with other non-human primates? In J. Vonk & T. Shackelford (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 434-450. [download]

Lakshminarayanan, V. R. & Santos, L. R. (2011). The evolution of our preferences: Insights from nonhuman primates. In R. J. Dolan & T. Sharot (Eds.) The Neuroscience of Preference and Choice: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms. London: Elsevier. 75-93. [download]

Santos, L. R. & Hughes, K. (2009). Economic cognition in human and animals: The search for core mechanisms. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 19, 63-66. [download]
Lakshminarayanan, V. & Santos, L. R. (2009). Trade, equity and the origins of economic systems. In P. Kappeler, & J. Silk (Eds.) Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. 245-258. [download]
Rosati, A., Hare, B. A. & Santos, L. R. (2009). Primate social cognition: Thirty years after Premack and Woodruff. In M. Platt & A. A. Ghazanfar (Eds.) Primate Neuroethology. Cambridge: MIT Press. 117-143. [download]
Flombaum, J. I., Scholl, B. J. & Santos, L. R. (2009). Spatiotemporal priority: the engine that drives object persistence. In B. M. Hood & L. R. Santos (Ed.) The Origins of Object Knowledge: The Yale Symposium on the Origins of Object & Number Representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 135-164. [download]
Santos, L. R. & Hood, B. M. (2009). Object representation as a central issue in cognitive science. In B. M. Hood & L. R. Santos (Ed.) The Origins of Object Knowledge: The Yale Symposium on the Origins of Object & Number Representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1-24. [download]
Santos, L. R. & Chen, M. K. (2009). The evolution of rational and irrational economic behavior: Evidence and insight from a non-human primate species. In P. Glimcher, C. F. Camerer, E. Fehr, & R. A. Poldrack (Eds.) Neuroeconomics: Decision-Making and the Brain. London: Elsevier. 81-94. [download]
Santos, L. R. & Lakshminarayanan (2008). Innate constraints on judgment and decision-making?: Insights from children and non-human primates. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, & S. Stich (Ed.) The Innate Mind: Foundations and The Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 293-310. [download]
Santos, L. R. (2008). The evolution of irrationality: Insights from non-human primates. T. Gendler and J. Hawthorne (Eds.) Oxford Studies in Epistemology, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 87-107. [download]
Hauser, M. D. & Santos, L. R. (2007). The evolutionary ancestry of our knowledge of tools: From percepts to concepts. In E. Margolis & S. Laurence (Eds.) Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 267-288. [download]
Chen, M. K. & Santos, L. R. (2006). Some thoughts on the adaptive function of inequity aversion: An alternative to Brosnan’s social hypothesis. Social Justice Research, 19(2), 201-207. [download]
Lyons, D. E. & Santos, L. R. (2006). Ecology, domain specificity, and the evolution of theory of mind: Is competition the catalyst? Philosophy Compass, 1, 481-492. [download]
Lyons, D. E., Santos, L. R., & Keil, F. C. (2006). Reflections of other minds: How primate social cognition can inform the function of mirror neurons. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16(2), 203-234. [download]
Santos, L. R., Flombaum, J. I. & Phillips, W. (2006). The evolution of human mind reading. In S. Platek (Ed.) Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience. Cambridge: MIT Press. 433-456. [download]
Weiss, D. J. & Santos, L. R. (2006). Why primates? The importance of nonhuman primates for understanding human infancy. Infancy, 9(2), 133-146. [download]
Lyons, D. E., Phillips, W. & Santos, L. R. (2005). Motivation is not enough: A commentary on Tomasello et al.,’s “Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 28(5), 708. [download]
Santos, L. R. (2005). Theory of mind. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. 1272-1273. [download]
Santos, L. R. (2005). Primate cognition: Putting two and two together. Commentary on Jordan et al. Current Biology, 15, R545-R547. [download]
Santos, L. R. (2005). Tool-Use. In M. Bekoff (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, Volume 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. 1065-1067. [download]
Santos, L. R. (2005). Theory of mind. In M. Bekoff (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, Volume 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. 327-328. [download]
Flombaum, J. I., Santos, L. R., & Hauser, M. D. (2002). Neuroecology and psychological modularity. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 106-108. [download]
Ghazanfar, A. A. & Santos, L. R. (2002). Primates as auditory specialists. In A. Ghazanfar (Ed.) Primate Audition: Ethology and Neurobiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 1-12. [download]
Santos, L. R. & Caramazza, A. (2002). The domain-specific hypothesis: A developmental and comparative perspective on category-specific deficits.  In G. Humphreys & E. Forde (Eds.) Category-Specificity in Brain and Mind. New York: Psychology Press. 1-23.